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IRRIGATION

AVOIDING DESERTIFICATION CAUSES - IRRIGATION

 

Irrigation can feed desertification in two ways. Inefficient irrigation wastes water, which can reduce vegetation and increase soil erosion. Over irrigation can flood the soil, or leading to an increase in salinity, making soils incapable of supporting plant growth, and affecting people and animals.

 

 

 

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Desertification - People

 

 

The UN currently estimates that desertification directly affects 46% of land in Africa, and around 250 million people. In Kenya, where desertification and drought has threatened over 11 million with famine, communities have been given exclusive rights over an area 5km from their homesteads, to try and stem the pressures on water and land.

 


WORKMANSHIP IRRIGATION METHODS FOR REGIONS WITH HIGH SALINITY WATER

Simplified handmade systems of production of irrigation, allow separating impurities of the water, mainly the salt, but also other noxious components. The simple principle originates from Second World War, when pilots carried plastic bags and plastic glasses below their seat in the planes. In case of fall in the water of the sea, the pilot in the inflatable located the salted water inside in the glass inside the plastic bag; he inflated the plastic bag and he closed the bag's mouth.

With the sun the seawater could evaporate on the wall of the plastic bag being slippery on the outside of the glass and allowing separate the salt of the water. In the plastic bag outside the glass contained only pure water.PET bottles allow manufacturing simple irrigation methods, which has no significant costs and may remain long time. The system allows sustaining several agricultural yields, depending on water requirements.

 

PET Irrigation Method

 

The illustrated sequence on the right side identifies four stages of the transformation of a bottle PET in a simple and functional irrigation system. The bottles can be suspended and irrigate directly, or they be linked in their bottom to the bamboo pipelines for the distribution of the irrigation.

 

DESCRIBING THE SYSTEM

 

Inserting impure water through the funnel in the interior glass, with the heating of the sun the water will evaporate and to condense in the internal walls of PET. Drops sliding will form a deposit of pure water in the bottom of the bottle PET, isolated of the glass.

The salt or impurities will be deposited in the bottom of the glass, could be removed occasionally.

The amount of purified water only depends on the sun heating. In areas of larger insolation the production will be superior to 1,5 litter per day.

 

Spray

Sprinklers are ideal systems for some type of agricultures. Others will request more control of the periods of irrigation and water quantity. Recipients may be manufactured using old barrels and Bamboos.

 

 

Images Courtesy:
http://tilz.tearfund.org/

 

 

The practically limitless technology with Bamboo has countless applications in the agriculture, handmade utilities and small industry products. The bamboo pipeline can be used as tubes, or have small holes spaced to produce irrigation in the whole field.

 

 

Bamboo

See next page
Bamboo technologies applications

 

SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTINUOUS WATER PURIFICATION AND IRRIGATION

 

The development of low cost systems for continues purification (avoiding expensive filtering systems) of the water in areas of great insolation and polluted or excessively salted waters can be developed with low cost equipments.

Recipients in transparent glass or plastic can serve as evaporation container and condensation, and solar panels for electrical feeding a water-pump from the container of polluted water. The solar panel also serves as heat accumulator over the container of polluted water elevating the temperature of the water before transferring to the evaporation recipient.

The scheme below identifies the principal details of the equipment that can be built in several dimensions. The distribution of the water can be through bamboo pipelines, or containers storage for consumption.

 



Irrigation and water management links

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/irmethods.html
http://pas.byu.edu/pas100/irrigati.htm
http://www.wca-infonet.org/iptrid/infonet/index.jsp
http://www.fao.org/docrep/S8684E/s8684e08.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrigation
http://www.aragriculture.org/soil_water/irrigation/methods/default.htm
http://gwpa.uckac.edu/pdf/Irrigation_Systems_and_Their_Performance.PDF
http://www.itdg.org/?id=special_appeal_sudan
http://www.unesco.org/water/water_links/
http://www.irrigationbc.com/index.cfm?method=pages.showPage&pageid=8
http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/abeng/links/irrigation.htm
http://www.irrigationtutorials.com/
http://www.irrig8right.com.au/




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